Turning machines (lathes) can be conventional (manual) or computer numerically controlled (CNC). Turning, in its simplest form involves the removal of material from a rotating workpiece clamped to a spindle using a fixed tool working along the piece. Types of lathes range extensively these days. Modern lathes can have live interchangeable tooling where the workpiece can be stopped and or moved and a rotating tool(s) used in the manner of a milling machine. Multi spindle and sliding head lathes are two such examples which can also be bar fed to offer higher volume and/or more complexity. We classify high volume as batches of 500 off or above.